Nov 13

Freudian Defense Mechanisms Part III

Why Defense Mechanism?


Individual tries to justify his or her failure or short coming by giving some excuses.

Example 1:

Carlo as a student does not do well in his new evening classes. He makes use of rationalization to justify his failure. He always blames the time of the class which is in the evening.

Example 2:

Sara has decided to divorce her “good husband.”
When she was asked for an explanation : She said, “ He snores.”

6) *Compensation-

It is an attempt to cover one deficiency in one field by exhibiting his/her strength in another field.

Example 1:

Sam  was not a very good engineer, he showed his ability in the football sport.

He became one of the greatest football players in Asian football, and FINEST S T R I K E R in the history of the Asian soccer. This is a good example of compensation for an engineer.

Example 2:

Sam is an individual with poor family condition. Sam directed his energy into excelling at his job, and he has become a rich man.

Example 3:

Carlo as a young man experiences feelings of inferiority because he cannot make as many baskets (basketball) as his peers do in the games.

Because of these feelings of inadequacy, he pushes himself to overcome this weakness. He signs up for basketball practice and start practicing on his own every day after school.

Eventually he becomes an even better basketball player than many of his friends.

Admin: Saeid R. Sedaghat

Nov 13

ANIMA and ANIMUS by Carl Jung

Ideally, if you read through Jung’s mind, his idea is to get to the point that you can experience all of the qualities of the opposite sex from within yourself.

While men have fundamental anima and women have an animus, each may also have the other, just as men have a FEMININE side and women a have a MASCULINE side.

the *Anima (male), *Animus (female), or more simply, the soul; then, it is the route to communication with the collective unconscious mind.

(Admin: Saeid R. Sedaghat)

Nov 13

The Concept of the Collective Unconscious Mind by Carl Jung

Carl Jung believed that the unconscious is the part of the mind containing memories and impulses, feelings, and mental states of which an individual is NOT aware.

Carl Jung believed that the unconscious mind was made up of two parts: a personal unconscious, and a collective unconscious.

1- The Personal Unconscious:

It is obtained from an individual’s own experience.

2- The Collective Unconscious:
It is an inborn and consists of prehistoric images, feelings, and behavioral patterns widespread to all humans.

Carl Jung believed that people are born with Collective Unconscious Mind. One cannot acquire this information by education or other conscious effort because it is an innate, an inborn, and an inherent.

Carl Jung describes the collective unconscious mind as a universal library of human knowledge, or the wisdom in human being, and it is the very superior wisdom that guides mankind.

Therefore, he thinks the Collective Unconscious Mind is like a library which has many books, and some of them were written 100 years ago.
Carl Jung also believed that the spiritual experience must be linked with the experience of the *Collective Unconscious Mind.

Therefore, We can study the Collective Unconscious Mind in two ways:
Either in mythology: ( heroes, gods, and monsters).
Or in the analysis of the individual.

We have to know that the Collective Unconscious Mind exist to varying degrees in all humans.

Many believe that over time, the collective unconscious mind evolves and changes to fit in the new information which is internationally or globally recognized and accepted.
The collective unconscious mind exist to varying degrees in all humans everywhere.
Many social psychologists believe that over time, the collective unconscious mind evolves and changes toward fitting new information that is internationally recognized and accepted.

Nov 02

Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Part II

Why Defense Mechanism?

In psychoanalytic theory, any of a group of mental processes that enables the mind to reach a solution for conflicts or problems. The Ego is unable to resolve; therefore, the mind uses the defense mechanism to protect the ego from harm and social pain.

3) *Repression-
Repression is the unconscious blocking of unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses. The key to repression is that people do it unconsciously, so they often have very little control over it. “Repressed Memories” are memories that have been unconsciously blocked from access or view.
Example 1:
Sara as an individual who had repressed memories of childhood abused; later on, she has difficulty forming a healthy relationships with people. Sara has a hard time to trust people and to bond a healthy relationship with people.

Example 2:
Jack who has seen a lot of trauma in the war, and he has repressed a lot of emotional and psychological trauma of war memories. He has difficulty acting in a healthy manner with his family.

4) *Regression-
It means going backwards. It is a defense mechanism in which the individual engages in behavior that is belong to the earlier age.

Example 1:
When Sam the younger brother of Sara is born, she is jealous and not very much happy about that. She has started going back to the pattern of her childhood behavior.

Example 2:
While Michel was walking with his father, she confronted a big dog. She was a little scared. After going home, she begins to talk like the time she was much younger, and she holds her father finger and asks for an ice cream. She sits on her daddy’s knee and eat her ice cream.
Most of us DO regress (go back) at some points in life where there was no stress and the life was easy, and it happens to a person who does not have coping strategies.

Sometimes, there is a correlation between *REGRESSION* and *FIXATION* stage at psycho sexual development. It is like a bridge which connects neck pain to a headache.

Example 3:
Sara has begun to chew on her pencils.
According to her Analyst she has an Oral Fixation. That chewing on pencil has happened again due to stress of final exam. Stress that she is experiencing now is due to the final exam. She is regressing to a behavior that she was fixated at childhood.

Example 4:
Rose got married about 3 weeks ago. She begins to have a little marital problems with her new husband . The first thing that she does, she goes back to her parents home where there was no marital quarrel, and less stress for her.

Example 5:
Sara is a 14 years old girl who is missing her father at home.
She has been going to her room and playing with her toys the way she was playing during child hood.
Sara is unconsciously regressing to childlike behavior; at the time, her father was around, and she was not missing him.

Usually, psychoanalysts say the regression is harmless and a person regresses to vent his or her feelings of frustration, at the time; that he or she is unable to cope with adult situations and problems.

Regression becomes a problem only when it is used regularly to avoid situations and problems.


Saeid R. Sedaghat

Oct 30

Sigmund Freud “Libido”

The libido is a term used by Sigmund Freud in psychoanalytic theory to describe the energy created by the survival and sexual instincts.

Freud his opinion of the mind is seeing that having only a fixed amount of psychic energy, or libido.

According to Sigmund Freud, the libido is part of the id and is the driving force of all behavior.The way in which libido is expressed depends upon the stage of development a person is in.According to Freud, children develop through a series of psycho sexual stages.

in each stage, the libido is focused on a specific area.

When the specific area is handled successfully, the child moves to the next stage of development and eventually grows into a healthy successful adult.

In some cases, the focus on a person’s libidinal energy may remain fixed at an earlier stage of development in what Freud referred to as fixation.

When it happens, the libido’s energy may be too tied to this developmental stage and the person will remain “stuck” in this stage until the conflict is resolved.

For example, the first stage of Freud ‘s theory of psycho sexual development is the ORAL stage.

During this time, a child’s libido is centered on the mouth, so activities such as eating, sucking, and drinking are important.

If an oral fixation occurs, an adult’s libidinal energy will remain focused on this stage, which might result in problems such as nail biting, drinking, smoking, and other habits.

Freud also believed that each individual only had so much libido energy.
Because the amount of energy available is limited, he suggested that different mental processes compete for what is available.

For example, Freud suggested that the act of repression, or keeping memories out of conscious awareness, requires a tremendous amount of psychic energy.

Any mental process that requires so much energy to maintain has an effect on the mind’s ability to function normally.

While the term libido has taken on an overtly sexual meaning in today’s world, to Freud it represented all psychic energy NOT just SEXUAL energy.

Sigmund Freud

Oct 30

Causes of psychological loss of libido

Causes of psychological loss of libido include:

- Stress
- Fatigue caused by night sweats (a symptom of menopause)
- Mood swings caused by fluctuating hormone levels
- Relationship problems

The definition of libido that relates to the physiological influences links a woman’s libido with her body’s physical responses to sexual advances. For example, loss of vaginal lubrication can adversely affect a woman’s libido.

Such physiological factors can mean that although a woman is emotionally in the mood for sex, her body is not responding how she would expect it to.
Treatments for Loss of Libido

If menopausal women are experiencing a loss of libido there are a number of different approaches they can take to revive their sexual desire.

Firstly, it is important that a woman is eating healthily and taking regular exercise, both of which are activities that have been shown to boost libido.

Additionally, there are natural supplements that boost hormone levels and can positively affect the libido. However, if these treatments prove ineffective a woman may wish to visit her medical practitioner for more information about boosting her libido levels.

There are several medical treatments that can help treat low libido problems, these three levels of approaches can be considered:

• Lifestyle changes
• Alternative approaches
• Drugs and surgery

Oct 30


Transference was a word coined by the Sigmund Freud to label the way patients “transfer” feelings from important persons in their early lives, onto the psychoanalyst or therapist.

To put it simply in basic language:
Transference is when a patient attributes feelings to a therapist. The feelings that are misplaced (missing) most of the time during childhood.
Example :
Silvia may be having issues with her father for never giving her attention, and she may see a male therapist as having the same qualities as her father and want the therapist to play that role unconsciously. And it IS NOT appropriate the therapist to play that role.
Counter transference is when the therapist attributes feelings toward a client.
Carlo was seeing a young woman who reminded him of his mother, and he had to work through those feelings because it isn’t just fair to the patient; it is immoral and against the law in some countries if the therapist feel counter-transference and continuing the sessions with the patient.”Counter-Transference” could interfere (get in the way) with successful treatment by the therapist.When the analyst is experiencing counter transference, s/he should free himself of these feelings by having further analysis himself. S/he should stop to treat the patient or client as soon as possible.


Reference:Saeid R. Sedaghat

Oct 26

Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Part 1

Why Defense Mechanism?

In an attempt to protect ourselves, we use defense mechanisms, sometimes several times a day, while MODERN psychology does not focus on the id, the ego, and the superego any more. However, defense mechanisms cannot be out of focus in modern psychology too.

Defense Mechanisms arise as the body’s own sieve (COLANDER), filtering out an alternative reality in favor of the reality that the mind prefers.What here follows are the most common defense mechanisms as Freud saw them.

1) *PROJECTION- in this mechanism, an individual puts the blame of his own failure upon others and some unfavorable factors of his environment. Simply, that is blaming others for his/her mistakes.

Example 1:

Sara comes late to the class, and he excuses by saying that the bus or train was late or there was a traffic jam.

Example 2:

Sara fails the math test, and she blames the noises from outside which did not let her to concentrate.

2) *SUBLIMATION- It is a defense mechanism in which unacceptable desires are redirected into socially accepted channels.

People who does sublimation, they redirect their impulses into socially acceptable activities.

This is a good defense mechanism and is very constructive and helpful to some adults.

According to Freud: Fantasy is a kind of Sublimation, when a person is fantasizing, he uses his Defense Mechanism, and it is the channeling of unacceptable or unattainable desires into imagination.Example:

Anita wanted to be a great painter; even though she couldn’t  She was fantasizing all her paints are displayed in museums, sometimes, imagining one’s ultimate career goals that can be helpful when one experiences temporary delay in academic achievement.

Freud believed that sublimation was a sign of maturity that allows people to function normally in socially acceptable ways.

Sublimation is one of the best Defense Mechanism for human being.

Example :
•Sara is angry and feeling to fight with people. He goes out and do some exercises such as kick boxing, weight lifting, 100 push ups  ,Sara ends up with a body that all the anger feelings and energy has come out. He has filtered his anger and nobody is harmed.

Finally, Freud believed that the greatest achievements in civilization were due to the
effective use of S* U* B* L* I* M* A* T* I* O*N*

It would be long and very lengthy to talk about all this eleven-important defensive mechanism ; therefore, this 11 defense mechanism will be talked in several parts.

Oct 25


The Concept of “RESISTANCE” in Psychology

In a simple language, Resistance is the act or power of resisting to the therapist. When the patient opposing the therapist, or withstanding the therapist.

This opposition (Resistance) by th

e patient is offered by several methods: stop talking, silent all suddenly, not answering the question, ending the session on his/her own decision, force the therapist to make a change in his/her style of therapy, make a joke, or pick a fight with the therapist.Resistance is the sign of progress, and it is very positive sign of improvement in patient. The therapist can identify the root of problem; the therapist gets closer to the source of the anxiety and other problems.

This idea was originally established by Sigmund Freud. It was following his work with patient Elizabeth (1892). This phenomenon was coined “RESISTANCE”  in psychology.

Oct 19

Sigmund Freud Anxiety theory

Definition of Anxiety:

According to Freud, anxiety is an unpleasant inner state that people seek to avoid.

Anxiety acts as a signal to the EGO ( *pay attention fans: not Id or Superego) that things are not going right.

Freud identified three types of anxiety:

A. Reality Anxiety
B. Neurotic Anxiety
C. Moral anxiety

1. Reality Anxiety or Realistic Anxiety:

It is a type of anxiety that the object does exist.

Overall, it is a fear of the real world events


If Robert is anxious about to be bitten by a dog which is standing in front of her. he has a reality anxiety.

Basically, the cause of this kind of anxiety is usually easily identified.

Another good example of Reality Anxiety is fear of an earthquake.

The most common way of reducing the Reality Anxiety is to keep away from or to avoid from the threatening object.

2. Neurotic Anxiety:

It is a type of anxiety that the object *doesn’t exist.*

Many people suffer from neurotic anxiety in a lot of countries.


If Jason is worrying about his Professor because he is a cold one, without smile, and suddenly Jason feels that he is angry toward him, and he is being anxious to be his object of the anger. This is a neurotic anxiety that Jason is experiencing.

3. Moral anxiety:

Moral anxiety involves a fear of violating our own moral principles. Moral anxiety is a fear of doing something that violates our moral code. It occurs when the ego feels threatened by the superego (our moral range) as a response to us breaking our own principles, and NOT following our morals and values.

Example 1:

Anahid who has to drink a lot of water due to her diabetic problem during fasting time at work .

By drinking water, she has a fear of violating moral principles of her environment during fasting time.

Moral Anxiety is basically a type of anxiety that people anxious about something that doesn’t match their conscience, principles, and sense of right or wrong.

Example 2:

Michel is anxious about to cheat on her exam or not, in a condition, she has not studied last night.

Michel is experiencing moral anxiety since she knows cheating is breaking the code and rules of university, and neurotic anxiety, which is she is worrying about to be caught by the professor.

Moral Anxiety is also the unconscious worrying that we will lose control of the id’s desires, and that is resulting in punishment for inappropriate behavior.

Example 1:

Carl likes to attend a party which is supposed to go on up to 2:00 AM in the morning on Thursday night.

Mean while, she is worrying about her neighbors and brother for coming home late.

Carl is experiencing moral anxiety that her neighbors will look at her as coming very late home , and in another direction she is worrying about to have confrontation with her brother after going home.

Now confrontation with her brother is sort of neurotic anxiety in Western society and it might be a reality anxiety in some Eastern Society. Therefore, Sima is experiencing Two anxieties at the same time.

Example 2:

Sara is always worrying about not responding to the dress code of school and is worrying of punishment “disciplines” by teachers or principal.

Sara feels moral anxiety as far the dress code (rules about what to wear in place) and along with the neurotic anxiety that is confrontation with the principal and teachers and perhaps some very conservative students.

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